The consequences of gene flow for local adaptation and differentiation: A two-locus two-deme model
Ada Akerman, Reinhard Bürger
(Submitted on 6 Mar 2013)
We consider a population subdivided into two demes connected by migration in which selection acts in opposite direction. We explore the effects of recombination and migration on the maintenance of multilocus polymorphism, on local adaptation, and on differentiation by employing a deterministic model with genic selection on two linked diallelic loci (i.e., no dominance or epistasis). For the following cases, we characterize explicitly the possible equilibrium configurations: weak, strong, highly asymmetric, and super-symmetric migration, no or weak recombination, and independent or strongly recombining loci. For independent loci (linkage equilibrium) and for completely linked loci, we derive the possible bifurcation patterns as functions of the total migration rate, assuming all other parameters are fixed but arbitrary. For these and other cases, we determine analytically the maximum migration rate below which a stable fully polymorphic equilibrium exists. In this case, differentiation and local adaptation are maintained. Their degree is quantified by a new multilocus version of $\Fst$ and by the migration load, respectively. In addition, we investigate the invasion conditions of locally beneficial mutants and show that linkage to a locus that is already in migration-selection balance facilitates invasion. Hence, loci of much smaller effect can invade than predicted by one-locus theory if linkage is sufficiently tight. We study how this minimum amount of linkage admitting invasion depends on the migration pattern. This suggests the emergence of clusters of locally beneficial mutations, which may form `genomic islands of divergence’. Finally, the influence of linkage and two-way migration on the effective migration rate at a linked neutral locus is explored. Numerical work complements our analytical results.