Landscape of standing variation for tandem duplications in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans
Rebekah L. Rogers, Julie M. Cridland, Ling Shao, Tina T. Hu, Peter Andolfatto, Kevin R. Thornton
(Submitted on 28 Jan 2014)
We have used whole genome paired-end Illumina sequence data to identify tandem duplications in 20 isofemale lines of D. yakuba, and 20 isofemale lines of D. simulans and performed genome wide validation with PacBio long molecule sequencing. We identify 1,415 tandem duplications that are segregating in D. yakuba as well as 975 duplications in D. simulans, indicating greater variation in D. yakuba. Additionally, we observe high rates of secondary deletions at duplicated sites, with 8% of duplicated sites in D. simulans and 17% of sites in D. yakuba modified with deletions. These secondary deletions are consistent with the action of the large loop mismatch repair system acting to remove polymorphic tandem duplication, resulting in rapid dynamics of gain and loss in duplicated alleles and a richer substrate of genetic novelty than has been previously reported. Most duplications are present in only single strains, suggesting deleterious impacts are common. However, we do observe signals consistent with adaptive evolution. D. simulans shows an excess of whole gene duplications and an excess of high frequency variants on the X chromosome, consistent with adaptive evolution through duplications on the D. simulans X. We identify 79 chimeric genes in D. yakuba and 38 chimeric genes in D. simulans, as well as 143 cases of recruited non-coding sequence in D. yakuba and 96 in D. simulans, in agreement with rates of chimeric gene origination in D. melanogaster. Together, these results suggest that tandem duplications often result in complex variation beyond whole gene duplications that offers a rich substrate of standing variation that is likely to contribute both to detrimental phenotypes and disease, as well as to adaptive evolutionary change.