Detection and Polarization of Introgression in a Five-taxon Phylogeny
James B Pease, Matthew W. Hahn
In clades of closely related taxa, discordant genealogies due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can complicate the detection of introgression. The D-statistic (a.k.a. the ABBA/BABA test) was proposed to infer introgression in the presence of ILS for a four-taxon clade. However, the original D-statistic cannot be directly applied to a symmetric five-taxon phylogeny, and the direction of introgression cannot be inferred for any tree topology. Here we explore the issues associated with previous methods for adapting the D-statistic to a larger tree topology, and propose new DFOIL tests to infer both the taxa involved in and the direction of introgressions for a symmetric five-taxon phylogeny. Using theory and simulations, we find that previous modifications of the D-statistic to five-taxon phylogenies incorrectly identify both the pairs of taxa exchanging migrants as well as the direction of introgression. The DFOIL statistics are shown to overcome this deficiency and to correctly determine the direction of introgressions. The DFOIL tests are relatively simple and computationally inexpensive to calculate, and can be easily applied to various phylogenomic datasets. In addition, our general approach to the problem of introgression detection could be adapted to larger tree topologies and other models of sequence evolution.