A new FST-based method to uncover local adaptation using environmental variables

A new $F_{\text{ST}}$-based method to uncover local adaptation using environmental variables
Pierre de Villemereuil, Oscar E. Gaggiotti
Comments: 18 pages, 5 figures, Supplementary Information at the end of the document
Subjects: Populations and Evolution (q-bio.PE)

Genome-scan methods are used for screening genome-wide patterns of DNA polymorphism to detect signatures of positive selection. There are two main types of methods: (i) “outlier” detection methods based on $F_{\text{ST}}$ that detect loci with high differenciation compared to the rest of the genomes and, (ii) environmental association methods that test the association between allele frequencies and environmental variables. In this article, we present a new $F_{\text{ST}}$-based genome scan method, BayeScEnv, which incorporates environmental information in the form of “environmental differentiation”. It is based on the F model but as opposed to existing approaches it considers two locus-specific effects, one due to divergent selection and another due to other processes such as differences in mutation rates across loci or background selection. Simulation studies showed that our method has a much lower false positive rate than an existing $F_{\text{ST}}$-based method, BayeScan, under a wide range of demographic scenarios. Although it had lower power, it leads to a better compromise between power and false positive rate. We apply our method to Human and Salmon datasets and show that it can be used successfully to study local adaptation. The method was developped in C++ and is avaible at this http URL

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