fabrizio mafessoni , Michael Lachmann
In finite populations, an allele disappears or reaches fixation due to two main forces, selection and drift. Selec- tion is generally thought to accelerate the process: a selected mutation will reach fixation faster than a neutral one, and a disadvantageous one will quickly disappear from the population. We show that even in simple diploid populations, this is often not true. Dominance and recessivity unexpectedly slow down the evolutionary process for weakly selected alleles. In particular, slightly advantageous dominant and mildly deleterious recessive mu- tations reach fixation more slowly than neutral ones. This phenomenon determines genetic signatures opposite to those expected under strong selection, such as increased instead of decreased genetic diversity around the selected site. Furthermore, we characterize a new phenomenon: mildly deleterious recessive alleles, thought to represent the vast majority of newly arising mutations, survive in a population longer than neutral ones, before getting lost. Hence, natural selection is less effective than previously thought in getting rid rapidly of slightly negative mutations, contributing their observed persistence in present populations. Consequently, low frequency slightly deleterious mutations are on average older than neutral ones.