Barley was introduced to North America ~400 years ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among different growth habits and inflorescence types in North America indicate significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row versus six-row inflorescences, and then by spring versus winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3,613 modern North American cultivated breeding lines that differ for row type and growth habit permit the discovery of 183 SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci which have previously been associated with agronomically-adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype-sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding programs, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding programs that could point to the sharing of agronomically-adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders understanding of germplasm sharing.