Elevation of linkage disequilibrium above neutral expectations in ancestral and derived populations of Drosophila melanogaster
The extent to which selection and demography impact patterns of genetic diversity in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster is yet to be fully understood. We previously observed that the pattern of LD at scales of ~10 kb in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), consisting of 145 inbred strains from Raleigh, North Carolina, measured both between pairs of sites and as haplotype homozygosity, is elevated above neutral demographic expectations. Further, we demonstrated that signatures of strong and recent soft sweeps are abundant. However, the extent to which this pattern is specific to this derived and admixed population is unknown. Neither is it clear whether such a pattern may have arisen as a consequence of the extensive inbreeding performed to generate the DGRP data. Here we analyze > 100 fully sequenced strains from Zambia, an ancestral population to the Raleigh population, that has experienced little to no admixture and was generated by sequencing haploid embryos rather than inbred strains. This data set allows us to determine whether patterns of elevated LD and signatures of abundant soft sweeps are generic to multiple populations of D. melanogaster or whether they are generated either by inbreeding, bottlenecks or admixture in the DGRP dataset. We find an elevation in long-range LD and haplotype homozygosity in the Zambian dataset, confirming the result from the DGRP data set. This elevation in LD and haplotype structure remains even after controlling for many sources of LD in the data including genomic inversions, admixture, population substructure, close relatedness of individual strains, and recombination rate variation. Furthermore, signatures of partial soft sweeps similar to those found in the DGRP are common in Zambia. These results suggest that while the selective forces and sources of adaptive mutations may differ in Zambia and Raleigh, elevated long-range LD and signatures of soft sweeps are generic in D. melanogaster.