Disease variants alter transcription factor levels and methylation of their binding sites
Most disease associated genetic risk factors are non-coding, making it challenging to design experiments to understand their functional consequences1,2. Identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) has been a powerful approach to infer downstream effects of disease variants but the large majority remains unexplained.3,4. The analysis of DNA methylation, a key component of the epigenome5, offers highly complementary data on the regulatory potential of genomic regions6,7. However, a large-scale, combined analysis of methylome and transcriptome data to infer downstream effects of disease variants is lacking. Here, we show that disease variants have wide-spread effects on DNA methylation in trans that likely reflect the downstream effects on binding sites of cis-regulated transcription factors. Using data on 3,841 Dutch samples, we detected 272,037 independent cis-meQTLs (FDR < 0.05) and identified 1,907 trait-associated SNPs that affect methylation levels of 10,141 different CpG sites in trans (FDR < 0.05), an eight-fold increase in the number downstream effects that was known from trans-eQTL studies3,8,9. Trans-meQTL CpG sites are enriched for active regulatory regions, being correlated with gene expression and overlap with Hi-C determined interchromosomal contacts10,11. We detected many trans-meQTL SNPs that affect expression levels of nearby transcription factors (including NFKB1, CTCF and NKX2-3), while the corresponding trans-meQTL CpG sites frequently coincide with its respective binding site. Trans-meQTL mapping therefore provides a strategy for identifying and better understanding downstream functional effects of many disease-associated variants.