Polygenic Modeling with Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Models

Polygenic Modeling with Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Models
Xiang Zhou, Peter Carbonetto, Matthew Stephens
(Submitted on 6 Sep 2012)

Both linear mixed models (LMMs) and sparse regression models are widely used in genetics applications, including, recently, polygenic modeling. These two approaches make very different assumptions, so are expected to perform well in different situations. However, in practice, for a given data set one typically does not know which assumptions will be more accurate. Motivated by this, we consider a hybrid of the two, which we refer to as a “Bayesian sparse linear mixed model” (BSLMM) that includes both these models as special cases. We address several key computational and statistical issues that arise when applying BSLMM, including appropriate prior specification for the hyper-parameters, and a novel Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for posterior inference. We apply BSLMM and compare it with other methods for two polygenic modeling applications: estimating the proportion of variance in phenotypes explained (PVE) by available genotypes, and phenotype (or breeding value) prediction. For estimating PVE, we demonstrate that BSLMM combines the advantages of both standard LMMs and sparse regression modeling. For phenotype prediction it considerably outperforms either of the other two methods, as well as several other large-scale regression methods previously suggested for this problem. Software implementing our method is freely available from this http URL


Finding the sources of missing heritability in a yeast cross

Finding the sources of missing heritability in a yeast cross

Joshua S. Bloom, Ian M. Ehrenreich, Wesley Loo, Thúy-Lan Võ Lite, Leonid Kruglyak
(Submitted on 14 Aug 2012)

For many traits, including susceptibility to common diseases in humans, causal loci uncovered by genetic mapping studies explain only a minority of the heritable contribution to trait variation. Multiple explanations for this “missing heritability” have been proposed. Here we use a large cross between two yeast strains to accurately estimate different sources of heritable variation for 46 quantitative traits and to detect underlying loci with high statistical power. We find that the detected loci explain nearly the entire additive contribution to heritable variation for the traits studied. We also show that the contribution to heritability of gene-gene interactions varies among traits, from near zero to 50%. Detected two-locus interactions explain only a minority of this contribution. These results substantially advance our understanding of the missing heritability problem and have important implications for future studies of complex and quantitative traits.