Evolution in spatial and spatiotemporal variable metapopulations changes a herbivore’s host plant rangeAnnelies De Roissart, Nicky Wybouw, David Renault, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Dries Bonte
The persistence and dynamics of populations largely depends on the way they are configured and integrated into space and the ensuing eco-evolutionary dynamics. We manipulated spatial and temporal variation in patch size in replicated experimental metapopulations of the herbivore mite Tetranychus urticae. Evolution over approximately 30 generations in the spatially and spatiotemporally variable metapopulations induced a significant divergence in life history traits, physiological endpoints and gene expression, but also a remarkable convergence relative to the stable reference patchy metapopulation in traits related to size and fecundity and in its transcriptional regulation. The observed evolutionary dynamics are tightly linked to demographic changes, more specifically frequent episodes of resource shortage, and increased the reproductive performance of mites on tomato, a challenging host plant. This points towards a general, adaptive stress response in stable spatial variable and spatiotemporal variable metapopulations that pre-adapts a herbivore arthropod to novel environmental stressors.
Collective Fluctuations in models of adaptation
Oskar Hallatschek, Lukas Geyrhofer
Subjects: Populations and Evolution (q-bio.PE); Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech); Biological Physics (physics.bio-ph)
The dynamics of adaptation is difficult to predict because it is highly stochastic even in large populations. The uncertainty emerges from number fluctuations, called genetic drift, arising in the small number of particularly fit individuals of the population. Random genetic drift in this evolutionary vanguard also limits the speed of adaptation, which diverges in deterministic models that ignore these chance effects. Several approaches have been developed to analyze the crucial role of noise on the expected dynamics of adaptation, including the mean fitness of the entire population, or the fate of newly arising beneficial deleterious mutations. However, very little is known about how genetic drift causes fluctuations to emerge on the population level, including fitness distribution variations and speed variations. Yet, these phenomena control the replicability of experimental evolution experiments and are key to a truly predictive understanding of evolutionary processes. Here, we develop an exact approach to these emergent fluctuations by a combination of computational and analytical methods. We show, analytically, that the infinite hierarchy of moment equations can be closed at any arbitrary order by a suitable choice of a dynamical constraint. This constraint regulates (rather than fixes) the population size, accounting for resource limitations. The resulting linear equations, which can be accurately solved numerically, exhibit fluctuation-induced terms that amplify short-distance correlations and suppress long-distance ones. Importantly, by accounting for the dynamics of sub-populations, we provide a systematic route to key population genetic quantities, such as fixation probabilities and decay rates of the genetic diversity.
BGT: efficient and flexible genotype query across many samples Heng Li
Subjects: Genomics (q-bio.GN)
Summary: BGT is a compact format, a fast command line tool and a simple web application for efficient and convenient query of whole-genome genotypes and frequencies across tens to hundreds of thousands of samples. On real data, it encodes the haplotypes of 32,488 samples across 39.2 million SNPs into a 7.4GB database and decodes a couple of hundred million genotypes per CPU second. The high performance enables real-time responses to complex queries.
Availability and implementation: https://github.com/lh3/bgt
The power of single molecule real-time sequencing technology in the de novo assembly of a eukaryotic genomeHiroaki Sakai, Naito Ken, Eri Ogiso-Tanaka, Yu Takahashi, Kohtaro Iseki, Chiaki Muto, Kazuhito Satou, Kuniko Teruya, Akino Shiroma, Makiko Shimoji, Takashi Hirano, Takeshi Itoh, Akito Kaga, Norihiko Tomooka
Second-generation sequencers (SGS) have been game-changing, achieving cost-effective whole genome sequencing in many non-model organisms. However, a large portion of the genomes still remains unassembled. We reconstructed azuki bean (Vigna angularis) genome using single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and achieved the best contiguity and coverage among currently assembled legume crops. The SMRT-based assembly produced 100 times longer contigs with 100 times smaller amount of gaps compared to the SGS-based assemblies. A detailed comparison between the assemblies revealed that the SMRT-based assembly enabled a more comprehensive gene annotation than the SGS-based assemblies where thousands of genes were missing or fragmented. A chromosome-scale assembly was generated based on the high-density genetic map, covering 86% of the azuki bean genome. We demonstrated that SMRT technology, though still needed to be assisted by SGS data, can achieve a near-complete assembly of a eukaryotic genome.
Evolution of organismal stoichiometry in a 50,000-generation experiment with Escherichia coli
Caroline B. Turner, Brian D. Wade, Justin R. Meyer, Richard E. Lenski
Organismal stoichiometry refers to the relative proportion of chemical elements in the biomass of organisms, and it can have important effects on ecological interactions from population to ecosystem scales. Although stoichiometry has been studied extensively from an ecological perspective, little is known about rates and directions of evolutionary changes in elemental composition in response to nutrient limitation. We measured carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of Escherichia coli evolved under controlled carbon-limited conditions for 50,000 generations. The bacteria evolved higher relative nitrogen and phosphorus content, consistent with selection for increased use of the more abundant elements. Total carbon assimilated also increased, indicating more efficient use of the limiting element. Altogether, our study shows that stoichiometry evolved over a relatively short time-period, and that it did so in a predictable direction given the carbon-limiting environment.
Improved ribosome-footprint and mRNA measurements provide insights into dynamics and regulation of yeast translation
David E Weinberg, Premal Shah, Stephen W Eichhorn, Jeffrey A Hussmann, Joshua B Plotkin, David P Bartel
Ribosome-footprint profiling provides genome-wide snapshots of translation, but technical challenges can confound its analysis. Here, we use improved methods to obtain ribosome-footprint profiles and mRNA abundances that more faithfully reflect gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support proposals that both the beginning of coding regions and codons matching rare tRNAs are more slowly translated. They also indicate that emergent polypeptides with as few as three basic residues within a 10-residue window tend to slow translation. With the improved mRNA measurements, the variation attributable to translational control in exponentially growing yeast was less than previously reported, and most of this variation could be predicted with a simple model that considered mRNA abundance, upstream open reading frames, cap-proximal structure and nucleotide composition, and lengths of the coding and 5′- untranslated regions. Collectively, our results reveal key features of translational control in yeast and provide a framework for executing and interpreting ribosome- profiling studies.
Salmon: Accurate, Versatile and Ultrafast Quantification from RNA-seq Data using Lightweight-Alignment
Rob Patro, Geet Duggal, Carl Kingsford
Transcript quantification is a central task in the analysis of RNA-seq data. Accurate computational methods for the quantification of transcript abundances are essential for downstream analysis. However, most existing approaches are much slower than is necessary for their degree of accuracy. We introduce Salmon, a novel method and software tool for transcript quantification that exhibits state-of-the-art accuracy while being significantly faster than most other tools. Salmon achieves this through the combined application of a two-phase inference procedure, a reduced data representation, and a novel lightweight read alignment algorithm. Salmon is written in C++11, and is available under the GPL v3 license as open-source software at https://combine-lab.github.io/salmon.
Multi Loci Phylogenetic Analysis with Gene Tree Clustering
Ruriko Yoshida, Kenji Fukumizu
(Submitted on 26 Jun 2015)
Theory and empirical evidence clearly indicate that phylogenies (trees) of different genes (loci) should not display precisely matched topologies. The main reason for such phylogenetic incongruence is reticulated evolutionary history of most species due to meiotic sexual recombination in eukaryotes, orhorizontal transfers of genetic materials in prokaryotes. Nevertheless, most genes should display topologically related phylogenies, and should group into one or more (for genetic hybrids) clusters in the “tree space.” In this paper we propose to apply the normalized-cut (Ncut) clustering algorithm to the set of gene trees with the geodesic distance between trees over the Billera-Holmes-Vogtmann (BHV) tree space. We first show by simulated data sets that the Ncut algorithm accurately clusters the set of gene trees given a species tree under the coalescent process, and show that the Ncut algorithm works better on the gene trees reconstructed via the neighbor-joining method than these reconstructed via the maximum likelihood estimator under the evolutionary models. Moreover, we apply the methods to a genome-wide data set (1290 genes encoding 690,838 amino acid residues) on coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods. The result suggests that there are two clusters in the data set. Finally we reconstruct the consensus trees from these two clusters; the consensus tree constructed from one cluster has the tree topology that coelacanths are most closely related to the tetrapods, and the consensus tree from the other includes an irresolvable trichotomy over the coelacanth, lungfish, and tetrapod lineages, suggesting divergence within a very short time interval.
Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Variation Across Human Cancers
Ed Reznik, Martin Miller, Yasin Senbabaoglu, Nadeem Riaz, William Lee, Chris Sander
In cancer, mitochondrial dysfunction, through mutations, deletions, and changes in copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), contributes to the malignant transformation and progression of tumors. Here, we report the first large-scale survey of mtDNA copy number variation across 21 distinct solid tumor types, examining over 13,000 tissue samples profiled with next-generation sequencing methods. We find a tendency for cancers, especially of the bladder and kidney, to be significantly depleted of mtDNA, relative to matched normal tissue. We show that mtDNA copy number is correlated to the expression of mitochondrially-localized metabolic pathways, suggesting that mtDNA copy number variation reflect gross changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity. Finally, we identify a subset of tumor-type-specific somatic alterations, including IDH1 and NF1 mutations in gliomas, whose incidence is strongly correlated to mtDNA copy number. Our findings suggest that modulation of mtDNA copy number may play a role in the pathology of cancer.
TransRate: reference free quality assessment of de-novo transcriptome assemblies
Richard D Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Rob Patro, Julian M Hibberd, Steven Kelly
TransRate is a tool for reference-free quality assessment of de novo transcriptome assemblies. Using only sequenced reads as the input, TransRate measures the quality of individual contigs and whole assemblies, enabling assembly optimization and comparison. TransRate can accurately evaluate assemblies of conserved and novel RNA molecules of any kind in any species. We show that it is more accurate than comparable methods and demonstrate its use on a variety of data.